LOCATION VAIDEN             AL+LA MS

Established Series
Rev. WJR:PGM
02/97

VAIDEN SERIES


The Vaiden series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained, very slowly permeable soils that formed in clayey sediments overlying chalk or calcareous clays. They are on uplands and old stream terraces of the
Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas Blackland Prairie and the Southern Coastal Plain major land resource areas. Near the type location, the average annual air temperature is about 63 degrees F. and the average annual precipitation is about 53 inches. Slopes are dominantly 0 to 5 percent but range to 17 percent.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Very-fine, smectitic, thermic Aquic Dystruderts

TYPICAL PEDON: Vaiden clay--pasture, micro-high of cyclic pedon. (Colors are for moist soil.)

Ap--0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) clay; weak fine granular structure; firm; common fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (1 to 8 inches thick)

Btss1--4 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate fine and medium angular blocky; firm; common fine roots; few intersecting slickensides having faint, slightly grooved surfaces; many medium distinct light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions and few fine prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) masses of iron accumulation on ped faces and within the matrix; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

Btss2--18 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate fine and medium angular blocky; firm; few fine roots; common intersecting slickensides having faint, slightly grooved surfaces; many medium distinct light gray (5Y 7/1) iron depletions and few fine prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) masses of iron accumulation on ped faces and within the matrix; few fine black concretions (MnO2); very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Btss horizon is 5 to 30 inches.)

Bss1--26 to 40 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) interior, gray (5Y 6/1) exterior, clay; moderate coarse and very coarse angular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots, flattened on primary surfaces; common large intersecting slickensides having prominent polished and grooved surfaces; common fine and medium distinct gray (5Y 6/1) iron depletions in the matrix; gray (5Y 6/1) colors on faces of slickensides and peds are iron depletions; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary.

Bss2--40 to 62 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) interior, gray (5Y 6/1) exterior, clay; moderate coarse and very coarse angular blocky structure; firm; common large intersecting slickensides having prominent polished and grooved surfaces; many fine and medium distinct gray (5Y 6/1) iron depletions in the matrix; gray (5Y 6/1) colors on faces of slickensides and peds are iron depletions; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bss horizon is 20 to 50 inches.)

Bkss--62 to 80 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) clay; coarse and very coarse angular blocky structure; firm; common large intersecting slickensides having prominent polished and grooved surfaces; many fine and medium light gray (5Y 7/1) iron depletions on faces of slickensides and secondary peds; common fine and medium black concretions (MnO2); common medium rounded soft masses of calcium carbonate and few fine and medium rounded calcium carbonate nodules; strongly effervescent; slightly alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Dallas County, Alabama; 75 feet north of county road, 2 miles northwest of the Black Belt Substation, 300 feet east of Southern Railroad and 1/2 mile south of Perry County line. SE1/4,SE1/4,NW1/4 sec. 3, T. 17 N., R. 8 E.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Depth to horizons with secondary carbonates is greater than 36 inches. Depth to chalk bedrock characterized as a paralithic contact is 60 inches or more.

The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture is clay loam, silty clay loam, clay, or silty clay. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid.

The Btss horizon or the Bt horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. Iron depletions in shades of gray and iron accumulations in shades of brown and red range from common to many. Some pedons lack a dominant matrix color and are multi-colored in shades of brown, gray, red, and yellow. Concretions and/or soft masses of manganese range from none to common. Texture is clay. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid.

The Bss horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, and value of 5 or 6. Chroma ranges from 4 to 8 in ped interiors and is 1 or 2 on ped exteriors or slickenside faces. Some pedons do not have a dominant matrix color and are multi-colored in shades of gray, brown, olive, and red. Iron depletions in shades of gray and iron accumulations in shades of brown and red range from common to many. Concretions and/or soft masses of manganese range from none to common. Texture is clay. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid.

The Bkss horizon, present in most pedons, has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y and value of 4 to 6. Chroma ranges from 4 to 6 in ped interiors and is 1 or 2 on the exterior of peds or slickenside faces. Some pedons do not have a dominant matrix color and are multi-colored in shades of gray, brown, and olive. Iron depletions in shades of gray and iron accumulations in shades of brown range from few to many and are most common on surfaces of peds or slickensides. Texture is clay or silty clay. Reaction is commonly slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline, but ranges to neutral. Soft masses and nodules or concretions of calcium carbonate range from few to many. Soft masses and/or concretions of manganese range from none to common.

The 2C horizon, present in some pedons, is highly weathered chalk or calcareous clay. It is massive or has platy rock structure. Some pedons have a 2Cr horizon below a depth of 60 inches that is weathered chalk bedrock. It can be dug with difficulty with hand tools and is rippable by heavy equipment.

COMPETING SERIES: There currently are no series in the same family.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Vaiden soils are on broad ridgetops and side slopes of uplands and old stream terraces of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas Blackland Prairie and the Southern Coastal Plain MLRA's. Slopes are generally 0 to 5 percent but range to 17 percent. These soils formed in clayey sediments overlying chalk or calcareous clays. The average annual air temperature ranges from 60 to 65 degrees F., and the average annual precipitation ranges from 48 to 56 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Brooksville, Eutaw, Faunsdale, Houston, Keiffer, Kipling, Louin, Maytag, Okolona, Oktibbeha, Sucarnoochee, and Sumter series. Brooksville and Faunsdale soils are on lower slopes and are neutral to moderately alkaline throughout. The poorly drained Eutaw soils are in slightly depressed positions and are dominantly gray in the upper part of the solum. Houston and Okolona soils are on slightly more convex positions and have thick dark colored surface horizons. Keiffer, Maytag, and Sumter soils are on slightly higher positions and are calcareous to the surface. Kipling soils are on similar positions as Vaiden soils and have fine textured argillic horizons. Louin soils are on similar positions as Vaiden soils and average less than 60 percent clay in the particle-size control section. Oktibbeha soils are on higher, more convex slopes and have hue of 2.5YR or 5YR in the upper part of the solum. Sucarnoochee soils are in flood plains and are neutral to moderately alkaline throughout.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. Surface runoff is slow to rapid. Permeability is very slow. These soils are saturated within a depth of 1.0 to 2.0 feet of the surface for significant periods during winter and spring of most years.

USE AND VEGETATION: Principal uses are cropland, pasture, hayland, and woodland. The main crops are cotton, soybeans, corn, and grain sorghum. Common trees in wooded areas are loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, post oak, sweetgum, southern red oak, and hickory.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The series is of large extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Auburn, Alabama

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Perry County, Alabama; 1930.

REMARKS: These soils were formerly classified as Vertic Hapludalfs. An argillic horizon is not currently recognized in the Vertisol order but is considered an important feature of this soil.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of about 4 inches (Ap horizon)Argillic horizon - the zone from approximately 4 to 26 inches (Btss horizons)

Cambic horizon - The zone from approximately 26 to 80 inches (Bss and Bkss horizons)

Intersecting slickensides beginning at about 4 inches and continuing to a depth of 80 inches. (Btss, Bss, and Bkss horizons)

Aquic conditions within 40 inches of the soil surface in most years and redoximorphic features (Btss horizon)

SIR- AL0017
MLRA
135, 133A, 133B

National Cooperative Soil Survey
U.S.A.

 

From: http://ortho.ftw.nrcs.usda.gov/osd/dat/V/VAIDEN.html

 

Soil Survey Staff 2003

National Soil Survey Characterization Data

Soil Survey Laboratory

National Soil Survey Center
USDA-NRCS - 
Lincoln, NE.

Thursday, August 14, 2003

 

 

 

135–Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas Blackland Prairie

From: http://www.mo15.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/mlra_ms.html and http://soilphysics.okstate.edu/S257/south/mlra/135.htm

Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi
21,550 sq. km (8,320 sq. mi)

Land use: In Alabama and Mississippi, this area is about 58 percent woodland, 26 percent pastureland, and 14 percent cropland. The small outlier in Arkansas is about 40 percent pastureland, 33 percent woodland, and 25 percent cropland. Most soil areas have been disturbed, and only small remnants of the former prairie vegetation remain. About 2 percent of the area is used for urban development or for other purposes. Soybeans are the major crop, but corn, small grains, and cotton are also grown. Pastures are used mainly for beef production, but in some places dairying is an important industry. The woodland is about 75 to 80 percent privately owned, and about 20 to 25 percent is owned by industry. This is not a very productive woodland area. Controlling soil erosion and infestation of Johnsongrass on soils that are cultivated are major concerns of management.
Elevation and topography: Elevation ranges from 25 to 100 m. Some of the more prominent valley floors are less than 25 m, and a few ridgetops exceed 100 m. Valley floors, side slopes, and ridgetops are underlain by clay, marl, and chalk. Local relief is mainly a few meters.

Climate: Average annual precipitation-1,225 to 1,425 mm. Maximum precipitation is early in winter, in spring, and in midsummer; the minimum is in autumn. Average annual temperature-16 to 18 C, decreasing from south to north. Average freeze-free period-220 to 260 days.

Water: Precipitation and perennial streams are important sources of water, but ground water from moderately deep and deep wells is the principal source for both domestic and municipal uses. Ponds provide water for livestock, and locally they are used for recreation. A few large reservoirs are available for recreation and other uses.

Soils: The dominant soils are Ochrepts and Uderts. They are fine or very-fine textured and have a thermic temperature regime, an udic moisture regime, and smectitic or carbonatic mineralogy. They are mainly moderately deep to deep over soft limestone or chalk and typically shrink, swell, and crack. Well drained and moderately well drained Eutrochrepts and Hapluderts (Sumter and Maytag series) and moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained Dystruderts (Oktibbeha and Vaiden series), all of which are nearly level to gently sloping and strongly sloping, are on wide ridgetops and narrow side slopes. Shallow Udorthents (Demopolis series) occur locally but are of small extent. Moderately well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping Epiaquepts (Leeper series), Hapludolls (Catalpa series), and Epiaquerts (Eutaw and Sucarnoochee series) are in floodplains and in low upland areas. The outer perimeter of the area is intermittently ringed with moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained Paleudalfs (Boswell and Searcy series) and moderately well drained and well drained Hapludults (Luverne, Sweatman, and Smithdale series).

Potential natural vegetation: This area supports deciduous hardwood forest vegetation. Red oak, white oak, sweetgum, and blackgum are the dominant overstory species. Eastern redcedar, dogwood, and osage orange are major midstory species. Japanese honeysuckle, greenbrier, little bluestem, native lespedezas, plumegrass, low panicums, sedges, and rushes are the dominant understory species.